ORSAN ENERGY uses 2 methods for recycling and energy production of Domestic Waste. Both methods are considered as THERMAL OPERATION. These are:
1. PYROLYSIS: In an oxygen-free environment, Solid (coal), Liquid (pyrolysis oil) and Gas (singase) outputs occur.
2. THERMAL GASIFICATION: Solid (coal) and gas (singase) outputs occur in the environment containing partial air.
Thermal processes are 10-1,000 times more intense than biological processes. In both methods, domestic wastes must be separated and then processed.
Table: Thermal Disposal Methods Pyrolysis and Gasification, Typical Reaction Conditions and Products
Tablo: Termal Bertaraf Yöntemleri Piroliz ve Gazifikasyon, Tipik Reaksiyon Koşulları ve Ürünler
|Reaction Temperature °C||250 ‐ 900||500 ‐ 1600|
|Combustion Chamber Pressure (bar)||1||1‐45|
|Ambient||Inert ‐ Nitrogen||O2, H2O|
|Stoichiometric air Air Ratio||0||< 1|
|Gaseous Products||H2, CO, H2O, N2||H2, CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, N2|
|Solid Products||Ash, Coal||Slag, Ash|
|Liquid Products||Pyrolysis Oil, Water|
SYSTEM RECYCLING EFFICIENCY: 100% of the HOUSEHOLD garbage brought to the facility as raw material will be recovered. Therefore, the recycling efficiency can be specified as 100%. Therefore, the Wild Storage system will disappear.
DOMESTIC WASTE PRE-SORTING PLANT
The Domestic Waste Separation Facility can be installed as FULLY AUTOMATIC, SEMI-AUTOMATIC and MANUAL SEPARATION according to demand. However, it generally consists of the following sub-components.
BAG OPENER: This machine; It will feed the sealed bags in the waste coming to the facility to a rotary drum equipped to tear through a feeding unit and ensure that the bags are opened to a large extent.
FEEDING CONVEYOR (INCLINED RAISING): Since it is a main feed conveyor, it will be steel pallet and chain.
DRUM SIEVE: Drum Sieve Length: 12000 mm; Diameter: 2500 mm; Tilt: 4-5º
BALLISTIC SIEVE: As a result of the dynamic movement of the inclined screen, the machine will benefit from the different ballistic properties of the waste fraction poured on it and ensure that the waste is grouped efficiently. With the operation of the machine: 2-dimensional materials will be floated upwards, 3-dimensional materials will be rolled down and small organic materials will be sieved and wastes will be divided into 3 groups.
2 MAGNETIC SEPERATOR
Cleaning: Automatic; Magnetic Length: Suitable for conveyor
Belt Speed: Can be changed by frequency converter
Driving Drum: Minimum 300mm diameter, 10mm rubber coated and diamond patterned.
Band: Nitrile Rubber, Oil resistant, Endless Band. 3 rows of court cloth EP125
AUTOMATIC HORIZONTAL BALE PRESS MACHINE
STEEL CONSTRUCTION SEPARATION PLATFORMS AND SEPARATION CABINET ELECTRICAL WORKS AND AUTOMATION
Pyrolysis, with its current definition, is the process of separating organic matter into gas, solid or liquid products by heating in an oxygen-free environment.
Computer controlled, Fully automatic, Catalytic thermal cracking, Separation.
The facility uses the wastes (with the principle of minimum waste), which is a very serious environmental problem, each of which has a separate economic value; It provides recovery by separating it into semi-finished components. The system subjects the material to thermal decomposition with controlled heat in an oxygen-free environment. After the procedure; wastes are the main components; It will be separated into four materials: carbon (coal), organic urea, flammable gas and oil.
COAL: Carbon Black Released is a coke-like coal product with a value of 4500-4900 kCal. It is packaged and burned in Solid Fuel Boilers.
PYROLYZ OIL: The oil has a value of 10300-9300 kCal (upper-lower calorific value range) and is a diesel-like product. (Euro Diesel 0.83 kg / lt, 10200 kCal / kg) It will be used as liquid fuel in electricity generators in the process.
BIOGAS: It is a mixture of Methane and Butane in the nature of natural gas. It has a higher calorific value than LPG, and energy is obtained by recycling in the facility and by burning.
3.2. THERMAL GASIFICATION:
Thermal gasification is the process of producing synthetic gas from organic wastes in an environment with high temperature and low oxygen (some air is supplied to the environment; however, it is ensured that the amount of oxygen in the environment is below the stoichiometric ratio). Most of the synthetic gas produced as a result of gasification consists of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), while the remaining small amount consists of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases. There are three technologies in thermal gasification. These are pyrolysis, conventional gasification and plasma gasification. Gasification is a different process than burning. Combustion occurs in an oxygen rich environment and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor are produced as products. Gases obtained by thermal gasification can be used for biofuel production and electrical energy generation. In addition, gasification by-products ash, slag and molten materials are suitable materials for reuse. In general terms, the operation of the system can be summarized as follows:
-Fuel Preparation Unit:
The first stage of the system is the fuel preparation unit. The wastes coming to the facility are stored and brought to the appropriate particle size with the help of mechanical shredders. If deemed necessary, it is subjected to a drying process before entering the gasification chamber with hot air.
It is the area where the thermo-chemical reaction takes place and synthesis gas is formed here. Fuel is injected into the reactor and initial combustion occurs. In the ongoing process, air flow is controlled, the amount of oxygen in the environment is balanced and the combustion reaction is converted into a gasification reaction. The temperature is kept under control with the help of oxygen in this environment and is fixed at approximately 1.00-1.300C.
Synthesis Gas and Biomass Formation:
Molecular bonds are dissolved and synthesis gas is formed under the effect of high temperature. Synthetic gas consists of a high proportion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide; some trace is present in other gases. Synthesis gas is cleaned of harmful gases with the help of gas cleaners and converted into energy by burning with the help of a gas engine / turbine.
While the energy obtained from the combustion of the synthesis gas is converted into electricity and transferred to the network; The waste heat generated during combustion and gasification is also used to generate electricity from steam turbines with the help of waste heat boilers.
The ash resulting from the gasification of biomass is called Biomass (Biochar). Due to its structure, it is a sought-after product in improving soil structure and increasing soil quality.
The content and amount of synthesis gas, biofuel and biomass produced in the process depends entirely on the technology and process used. For this reason, it is important to choose technology and process by considering the product target. While low temperatures increase the production of biofuels and biomass, high temperatures support the production of synthesis gas.
Figure 2: Flow Chart of Integrated Gasification Process